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Title : Optimization of hybrid microwave reduction roasting of low grade iron ore using cow dung


The reduction of iron ore using cow dung has introduced a new era because of its contribution to energy and emission reduction. Cow dung (fixed carbon: 9.33%, volatile matter 42.76%) used as the reductant in the reduction roasting of low grade iron ore (Fe 44.53%) in a hybrid microwave furnace with a frequency of 2.45GHz and maximum power of 4kW. The optimum conditions of roasting as determined by taguchi stastistical design were found to be temperature: 700ºC, time: 5 minute and reductant to feed ratio: 0.4. The magnetic concentrate having 61.2%Fe, 75.9% recovery has a potential to be used for Iron making industry The magnetization of microwave treated samples were determined using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).Characterization studies indicate the formation of magnetite phase under optimum conditions resulting higher total magnetism saturation of the sample. The magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization of lean iron ore using cow dung as reductant very effectively enhanced by converting hematite to magnetite at the optimum condition using a controlled hybrid microwave furnace.

  • To compete the growing demand for iron and steel in tandem with the gradual depletion of high grade ores calls for the utilization of the low grade resources.
  • To provide the cheap alternatives for coal based reductants.
  • To study all the possibilities of using cow dung as a reductant for the reduction roasting studies of an Indian iron ore slime sample.


  • M.Tech, IIT BHU Varanasi, 2018
  • Research Scholar, IIT Madras