Metallurgical engineers come up with new ways to treat metals and turn them into usable items. One of the materials sciences is metallurgy, or the science of metals. Physical metallurgy, ceramics, and polymer chemistry, or plastics, are examples of other materials sciences. Metallurgical engineers are a type of materials engineer who works largely in the industrial sector, particularly in the iron and steel industry. Other metals, such as aluminium or copper, are used by some. Metallurgical engineers work in industries that produce metal-based machinery and goods, such as vehicles and electrical equipment.
A mineral or mineral species is a solid chemical substance with a very well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form in geology and mineralogy. Compounds found only in living creatures are usually excluded from the geological definition of mineral. However, some minerals (such as calcite) are biogenic or are organic substances in the sense of chemistry (such as mellite). Mineralogy is a systematic study of all minerals that includes their description, crystallographic, physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics. Materials mineralogy is the concept of using minerals in technological applications based on their physical and chemical qualities rather than as a source of constituent elements, as ore minerals are.