Structural materials, as opposed to electronic, magnetic, chemical, or optical properties, are materials used or studied primarily for their mechanical properties. This can include a material's elastic or plastic response to an applied force, as well as its hardness and strength. Materials with the primary aim of transmitting or supporting a force are classified as structural materials. Transportation (plane and automobiles), construction (buildings and roads), bodily protection (helmets and body armour), energy production (turbine blades), and other smaller structures such as those used in microelectronics are all possible applications. Metallic, ceramic, polymeric, or a combination of these materials can be used as structural materials.
Metallurgy is the science of metals and how it is applied to the production of metal components. The science and technology of metals and alloys is known as metallurgy. Metallurgy was once considered an art rather than a science, but by the mid-nineteenth century, massive metallurgical factories had been created (based on empirical relations, trial and error, intuition, etc.) and successfully functioned. Metallurgy has evolved as a science and has become more predictive during the last 150 years. Metallurgy is the study of the physical and chemical behaviour of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixes, which are referred to as alloys, by material scientists and material engineers.