Metals or minerals are substances that naturally occur beneath the Earth's surface. The majority of metals are lustrous or shining. Metals are inorganic, meaning they are formed of materials that have never been alive. Metals are natural components of the earth's crust that are present in the form of metal ores and are related with each other as well as a variety of other elements. They're also found in the rocks washed by surface and groundwater, as well as in air dust.
The metals and mining industry is responsible for locating and extracting metal and mineral reserves all over the world. Metals and minerals are mined for profit around the world and then used in jewellery, industrial applications, and investments. Mined minerals are utilised to build basic infrastructure (such as building frameworks) and generate electricity. They allow for the manufacture of existing green technology like electric vehicles, solar panels, and wind turbines, as well as the creation of new ones to address climate change's urgency.
Minerals are naturally occurring homogeneous solids having a specified chemical composition and a highly organised atomic arrangement that are generated by inorganic processes. There are thousands of mineral species known, but only around 100 of them comprise the primary mineral components of rocks; these are known as rock-forming minerals. Mining is the process of extracting valuable resources from the earth. Mining, while providing numerous valuable minerals, has the potential to harm both people and the environment.
A substance or mixture of substances that makes up an object is called a material. Pure or impure materials, as well as living and non-living things, can be used. Physical and chemical qualities, as well as geological origin and biological purpose, can all be used to classify materials. The study of materials and their applications is known as materials science. Purification, shaping, and the introduction of other elements can all be used to modify the qualities of raw materials. Synthetic methods can be used to create new materials from raw materials. Materials are used as inputs in manufacturing processes to create goods or more complicated materials in industry.