Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins are biological macromolecules that are required for life. These are the most critical cellular components, and they conduct a wide range of actions that are required for living organisms' survival and growth. These are important for cell structure and function. Polymers, which are molecules made up of numerous smaller molecules called monomers, make up the majority of biological macromolecules. Typically, all of the monomers in a polymer are the same or highly similar to one another, and they are joined over and over to form the larger macromolecule. These simple monomers can be joined together in a variety of ways to create complex biological polymers.
The term "biomaterials" combines the concepts of biology and materials. Any materials, surface, or construct that interacts with biological processes is referred to as a biomaterial. Biomaterials science is the study of biomaterials. Fundamental subjects such as physics, chemistry, and biology, as well as material science, support biomaterials science. Bioderived, bioinspired, biomimetic, and biocompatible self-healing materials are currently found in a wide spectrum of physiologically acceptable molecular structures, coatings, membranes, gels, drug delivery carriers, cell culture scaffolds, and multi-functional biomaterials.