Optical materials can be characterised as materials that change or control electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or infrared (IR) spectrum areas in the broadest sense. Lenses, mirrors, windows, prisms, polarizers, detectors, and modulators, among other optical devices, can refract, reflect, transmit, disperse, polarise, detect, and transform light. Various sorts of materials are utilised for creating optical elements. Optical materials are typically thought of as transparent materials, i.e., materials that transmit light well in specific spectral bands while absorbing and scattering light minimally. Physical qualities of optical materials, like all materials, are derived from their chemical makeup and physical form.
Electronic materials are materials that are commonly employed as key elements in a wide range of device applications. Memories, displays, and LEDs are examples of these elements, which can be found in everyday electronic devices such as cell phones, PCs, laptops, tablets, GPS devices, LED bulbs, TVs, and monitors. Changing dimensions and levels of functionality necessitate ongoing attempts to produce cutting-edge materials in order to satisfy the technological hurdles connected with gadget development.
Magnetic materials are materials that have magnetic properties and are studied and used for that reason. The magnetic dipole moment associated with the inherent angular momentum, or spin, of a material's electrons determines much of its magnetic response. Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, or antiferromagnetic describes a material's response to an applied magnetic field. In today's technology, magnetic materials play an important function. Motors, generators, and transformers all use them as crucial components. Magnetic materials have been used for a long time. Magnetic materials are now used in almost every aspect of modern technology.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-related science and technology have recently spawned a new branch of research known as "plasmonics." Plasmonics is a branch of physics that studies the interaction of light waves with metallic surfaces, as well as the resultant density waves of electrons that can occur. A surface plasmon polariton, or surface plasmon, is the resultant electron density wave that propagates along the metal's surface. It makes use of light's coupling to charges in metals, such as electrons, to overcome the diffraction limit for light localisation into subwavelength dimensions, allowing for substantial field enhancements.