Life without batteries would be a trip back in time, perhaps a century or two, when steam power or clockwork were pretty much the only sources of portable energy. Batteries, which can be as small as a fingernail or as large as a trunk, provide a reliable and consistent supply of electrical energy whenever and wherever we need it. A battery is a self-contained chemical power source that can create a finite amount of electrical energy when needed. Unlike regular electricity, which is delivered to your home via cables that originate at a power plant, a battery gradually turns chemicals stored within it into electrical energy, which is then released over days, weeks, months, or even years.
The characteristic component of a solid-state battery is the solid-state electrolyte (SSE), which is a solid ionic conductor and electron-insulating substance. It has applications in electrical energy storage (EES) as a liquid electrolyte replacement, particularly in lithium-ion batteries. The commercially available Li-ion battery contains a separator that keeps the cathode and anode separated by a liquid electrolyte solution. Solid-state batteries, on the other hand, use solid electrolyte rather than liquid electrolyte solution, and the solid electrolyte also serves as a separator. A solid-state battery with a solid electrolyte has greater stability and safety due to its solid structure, which keeps the form even if the electrolyte is disturbed.